UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT
STATE OF COMMODITY
DEPENDENCE
Geneva, 2021
STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2021
iiii
© 2021, United Nations
All rights reserved worldwide
Requests to reproduce excerpts or to photocopy should be addressed to the Copyright Clearance Center at
copyright.com.
All other queries on rights and licences, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to:
United Nations Publications
405 East 42nd Street
New York, New York 10017
United States of America
Email: publications@un.org
Website: https://shop.un.org
The designations employed and the presentation of material on any map in this work do not imply the expression of
any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or
area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
United Nations publication issued by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
UNCTAD | DITC | COM | 2021 | 2
ISBN: 978-92-1-113021-8
eISBN: 978-92-1-005779-0
ISSN: 2663-7111
eISSN: 2663-712X
Sales no.: E.21.II.D.17
Table of contents Introduction
Chapter 1
Key findings
Chapter 2
Classifications,
Explanatory notes, and
statistical profiles
UNCTAD member States
Individual statistical
profiles
iiiiii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Acknowledgements
State of Commodity Dependence 2021 was prepared by Alexandra Laurent from the Commodities Branch of the
Division on International Trade and Commodities of UNCTAD, under the overall guidance of Janvier Nkurunziza,
Ofcer-in-Charge of the Branch. The report provides statistical overviews, with a focus on commodity-related
information, for all 195 member States of UNCTAD. This report is the fth edition in the series.
At UNCTAD, the Intergovernmental Support Service provided editing of the report; Danièle Boglio provided
administrative support; and Magali Studer, and Gilles Maury respectively prepared the overall design and the cover.
Layout of the report was undertaken by Carlos Bragunde López, of the United Nations Ofce at Geneva.
For further information about this publication, please contact the Commodities Branch, Division on International
Trade and Commodities, UNCTAD, Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland, tel. +41 22 917 56 76,
e-mail: commodities@unctad.org.
Table of contents Introduction
Chapter 1
Key findings
Chapter 2
Classifications,
Explanatory notes, and
statistical profiles
UNCTAD member States
Individual statistical
profiles
STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2021
iviv
Table of contents
Acknowledgements ................................................................iii
Introduction ...................................................................... v
Chapitre 1. Key findings ................................................................1
1.1 Developments in commodity dependence ..........................................4
1.2 Commodity dependence by development status .....................................5
1.3 Commodity dependence by geographical distribution.................................. 7
1.4 Commodity dependence by income grouping....................................... 14
Chapitre 2 . Classifications, Explanatory notes, and statistical profiles.........................17
2.1 Classications .............................................................. 18
2.2 Explanatory notes for statistical proles ...........................................24
2.3 UNCTAD member States: Individual statistical proles ................................45
Figures
Figure 1. UNCTAD member States: Level of commodity export dependence, 2018–2019 ..........2
Figure 2. UNCTAD member States: Commodity dependence by export product group, 2018–2019...3
Figure 3. Commodity dependence in developed countries, 2008–2009 and 2018–2019 ...........6
Figure 4. Commodity dependence in transition economies, 2008–2009 and 2018–2019 ...........7
Figure 5. Commodity dependence in developing countries, 2008–2009 and 2018–2019 ...........7
Figure 6. Commodity dependence by region, 2018–2019 ..................................9
Figure 7. Commodity dependence in Africa, 2018–2019.................................. 10
Figure 8. Mongolia: Rise of coal export value, 2008–2019 ................................13
Tables
Table 1. Countries that were commodity dependent in both 2008–2009 and 2018–2019...........4
Table 2. Changes in commodity dependence between 2008–2009 and 2018–2019 ..............5
Table 3. UNCTAD member States: Distribution by geographical region and subregion ............. 8
Table 4. Commodity dependence in Africa, 2008–2009 and 2018–2019 .......................9
Table 5. Commodity dependence in Oceania, 2008–2009 and 2018–2019 ....................11
Table 6. Commodity dependence in the Americas, 2008–2009 and 2018–2019 ................12
Table 7. Commodity dependence in Asia, 2008–2009 and 2018–2019 .......................13
Table 8. Commodity dependence in Europe, 2008–2009 and 2018–2019 .....................14
Table 9. Commodity dependence by income grouping, 2018–2019..........................15
Table of contents Introduction
Chapter 1
Key findings
Chapter 2
Classifications,
Explanatory notes, and
statistical profiles
UNCTAD member States
Individual statistical
profiles
vv
INTRODUCTION
Introduction
A country is considered to be commodity export dependent when more than 60 per cent of its total merchandise
exports are composed of commodities. Given that commodity dependence can have a negative impact on a country’s
economic development, it is important to monitor the evolution of such dependence in countries throughout the
world. In particular, detailed statistics on commodity dependence provide an invaluable tool for a comprehensive
analysis of its causes and consequences and contribute to the policy debate about measures necessary to address
it in the short and long terms.
The UNCTAD State of Commodity Dependence report is published every two years. This 2021 edition contains
statistical proles for the 195 member States of UNCTAD, comprising over 30 indicators aimed at describing the
extent of each economy’s import and export commodity dependence between 2008–2009 and 2018–2019, as
well as key structural and socioeconomic variables related to the commodity dependence phenomenon, such as
gross domestic product growth, per capita gross domestic product, the Human Development Index (HDI) and value
added by economic sector, among others. This edition of the report includes a set of indicators on technology for
each economy, reecting the research discussed in Commodities and Development Report 2021: Escaping from the
Commodity Dependence Trap Through Technology and Innovation.
The analytical chapter, chapter 1, discusses some developments in the decade since the launch of this report series
and, in particular, aims to characterize the state of commodity dependence worldwide and its evolution between
2008–2009 and 2018–2019. Chapter 2 provides the individual statistical proles for the 195 member States of
UNCTAD.
Table of contents Introduction
Chapter 1
Key findings
Chapter 2
Classifications,
Explanatory notes, and
statistical profiles
UNCTAD member States
Individual statistical
profiles